Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Lets make atom 1

In the atom the basic view of the atom is Proton and neutron tightly packed in very small volume inside nuclues and the electrons rotating like planets around the nucleus.  As discussed at the microscopic world the wave nature of matter become important. So No! No! we can't see the atom as our planetary system.
Atom clipart violet
NO NO This is not the Right model of atom
There is a particular wave length associated with electron at a particular speed. and a complete wave length around the nucleus is required for movement. In this state (full wavelength) electron do not emit the EM Radition while moving around the nucleus. when a photon is absorbed by the electron of the energy required to jump up the orbits --- the electron jump to the upper orbits. when electron come back to lower orbits it emit photon of frequency corresponded to the jump enegry.

Hydrogen transitions
The electron transitions in hydrogen atom

See below the sinusoidal wave completing a complete circle. 0 to 2 pie is its one wave length.
Sine one period
See other sinsuidal wave having two complete wavelength and completing the 0 to 4 pie.
But Electron have to revolve in a 2 Pie space or 360 degree and to complete its two wave length in same space.

Circular Standing Wave
Circular standing wave
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Thursday, July 5, 2012

Let us make the atoms

Yes! the atom is made of particles. Particles. the Basic stable particles are Neutrons, Protons, and electrons. Particles have a definite value of electric charge and mass. Neutron have the 0 charge. the charge on the particles is whole multiple of  e ie1.602×10−19 Coulamb. We are at subatomic level of atom the aprox size of atom is of the order of 10-10M. To make atoms We have to go to subatomic level. The electron is particle and have a rest mass me. Now consider that two electron are coming  towards each other they come nearer and nearer Oh! stop them and they would collide (if have sufficient energy to overcome the electrostatic repulsion. Hey Stop them. Wait a minute why the electrons are moving in a zig-zag way like the waves on string. Why these cannt move in straigth line. Oh this is now moving so fast and I can't locate precisely it now.

This is the dual nature of particle as picked by Victor the Broiglie and proved by the Davisson & Thompson Junior. Yes Dual nature THE WAVE and PARTICLE. If both the light and matter have the dual nature then why we dont call them same ie every thing is matter or light. No Please don't tell the matter like electron has its rest mass (what is the meaning of rest in this universe?) but photon dont have rest mass. photon can move (fly) with the speed c 3X108 m/sec and matter can't. photon's frequency gives its mass on same speed C and matters frequency and mass increase as it reaches the C.

By the way this is very interesting and it seems that some disturbance in the space has created the matter and  the light. matter seems more stable entity in space than the light. Matter converts to light and vice-versa. It seems every thing is a disturbances in space some stabe and confined to particular sparce (as matter) and other on the move( As Light).
Alpha Decay
Some matter particles are on the verge between matter and light and is not as stable as electron or proton. the unstable particles like positron nutrino etc have very short life and disintigrates to other form.

Basically the view of the universe comes out "the space with some distortions ::** matter and light**:::"

And so we call the universe as the sum of " Space and Energy".

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Sunday, July 1, 2012

the building blocks

There are basically three things in our world/universe that we see generally.

1. Particles   :: Electron neuron proton photon (dual nature)
2. Space      :: The place where every thing occurs 
3. Energy     :: That make or try to make the things dynamic.

Let us take first the particles. basically they have mass. the measurement of the matter. every thing around us is made of mass. Humm ???? Light ???? Yes light what we see or all the electromagnatic radiation do act like matter and on collision produce momentum. the momentum of a photon of a v frequency is p=\hbar k=\frac{h\nu}{c}=\frac{h}{\lambda}.

We have to live with this dual charchacter of light particle and wave.

This is the time talking the elementary particles which cannot be broken further in the more basic particles.

  • Electron,
  • Quarks (six types of quarks:::: flavors up, Down, Strange, Charm, Bottom, and Top)
  • Nuetrino
  • Photon
  • W Z Bosons
But a new theory suggest that all of these particles are even made of fundmental unit that is called string. This theory is called the string theory.

String theory
1. Bulk matter level (Big crystal) which is made of small crystal.
2. Molecular Level.
3. Atomic level
4. Sub atomic level (Basic particle levels some can be breaked in to a elementry particles like quqrks neutrinos etc)
5. The elemetry particle levels ( Electron,. neutrinos quarks, WZ Bosons )
6. The String level Everything is made of these strings.

As the string the only basic entity of matter so everything can be explained by the properties of string. Theortical work is being done by many scientist.

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Tuesday, June 26, 2012


We live in an world that provided a stage for us for our existence. Us!!!! what are we? We are system. A system is composition of various parts made of materials. System have an input and a desired output. Yes I be precise we are a system made of various parts called organs. Hmm!  various organs like Heart, Skin, muslces, Eyes, Brains etc. But What are the things with which these organs are made of. Yes the Cells. Cells in itself is a complete system and live without the help of any other cell if the favourable conditions exists in surroundings. A single cell species ameba parameciaums are common examples.

This is the microsopic view showing the amooeba.


But each of these cells what we can call life unit is made of the cluster of compounds. cluster of compounds are made of compounds or molecules and molecules are made of atomes or basic elements. these atoms are made of the fundamental particles like electron proton neutron. and these particles are made of the quarks. At the time we know upto the level of quarks only. Quarks first discovered at SLAC in 1968 until then 6 types of quarks have been discovered.

Quark structure proton proton composed of quark
we have broken ourselves and all the living thing into the zero level particles. What about other non living things around us. Yes they all are made of the same fundamental particles So principly we are made of the non living materials those form a system that we call a living thing.

Which things we should call a living thing. Any thing having following property called a living thing.

1.  It have metabolism. ::: A process to generate energy to carryout the basic life processes.
2. Reproduction           :::: generates its copy  or give birth

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